History in EtawahThe Yamuna River is flanked in Uttar Pradesh by the historic city of Etawah, which is also presently the prime seat of administrative control for District Etawah. The Chambal River unites with the Yamuna River at this pictorial township of Etawah, which had witnessed innumerable eventful incidents that had shaped the future of India over thousands of years of glory and grandeur as well as turmoil and mayhem. Extant even during the ancient civilization of Bronze Age as evident from the bronze weapons found across the entire plain of Doab amidst River Yamuna and River Ganga, the town of Etawah is thought to be the place of origin of a metal spear, which was exhibited in 1837 at the British Museum. The city of Etawah holds the historic ruins of the Indian Salt Hedge and various other vital signs of Indian history, which includes the medieval period and even the modern period of history in India during the pre-Independence and post-Independence era.
Etawah in Vedic PeriodThe oldest known Aryans to be settling in Etawah were the Panchalas, a grouping believed to be associated closely with the tribal community of the Kurus during the Vedic Period. The region in and around Etawah in the Upper Gangetic plain at that time was known as Panchala. A descendant of King Bharata, the great ruler of India, is considered to be the founder of ancient Etawah. The ancient Hindu epics of Ramayana and Mahabharata, which were originally written in Sanskrit, also contain verses related to Etawah.
Ancient History of EtawahKings of the Gupta dynasty, Naga dynasty, Kushan dynasty and Kanva dynasty had Etawah as a part of their sovereignty. The kings of the Gupta dynasty included Etawah as a part of their widespread kingdom during the 4th century A.D. The descendants of the Pratihara Dynasty, ruling over the northern part of India during the four consecutive centuries of 8th, 9th, 10th and 11th also dominated Etawah during the 9th and 10th century A.D. The Gurjara Pratihara ruler King Nagabhata II included Etawah and its adjoining areas after he conquered Kanauj and during the rule of Mihira Bhoja I of the Pratihara Dynasty the areas in and around Etawah enjoyed prosperity and abundance being safe from robberies.
Muslim Rulers in EtawahIn 1193 the Muslim rulers embraced Etawah as a part of their territory after the downfall of Kanauj and Delhi. The region in and around District Etawah witnessed the dominance of even the Marathas, the Rajputs, the Sengars, the Bhadaurias, the Dhakras and the Chauhans. The Hindus started inhabiting the district as soon as the Rajputs began to settle across the region and still reside in and around the city of Etawah.
Some administrative issues related to tax collection created disturbance at the time of Nasir-ud-din Muhammad Shah’s control over Etawah but was soon put to an end by the Tomar ruler of Gwalior, Vir Singh in 1390. In 1392 Nar Singh, the Rajput head of the ruling over the districts of Mainpuri and Etawah at that time, along with Bir Bahan and Sarvadharan started expressing their agitation towards the Muslim rule. In the historical depictions Sarvadharan is known as Rai Sarwar and as far as tradition goes, he was Sumer Shah, the predecessor of the Chauhans inhabiting the Mainpuri district till day. In 1393 Bir Bahan, Rai Sarvadharan, Abhai Chand and Jit Singh Rathore once again started a rebellion and all were killed during this uprising except Rai Sarvadharan, who managed to enter into Etawah.
Humayun Khan succeeded his father Muhammad Shah in 1394 and Malik-us Sharq, the administrator of central and lower part of Doab led a troop to rebuke the dissenters. Law and order prevailed for a very short time period to be terminated by Indian invasion of Timur and after the invasion Ikbal Khan became the sovereign of the upper part of the Doab along with the areas around Delhi, Kanauj to Bihar being still under the control of Malik-us Sharq, better known as Khwaja-i-jahan.
Mughal Rule in EtawahEtawah continued to be associated with numerous other notable historical movements even in the later periods of Indian history, such as in the Jaunpur Campaign and even during the reign of the rulers of the Lodi Dynasty and Mughal Dynasty, which include Bahlol Lodi, Ibrahim Lodi, Babur, Humayun and Akbar. The district of Etawah also underwent major changes during the ruling period of the Rohillas and the Oudh government. Saadat Ali Khan, Nawab of Oudh handed over the district Etawah to British sovereignty after which peace prevailing area was disturbed for a few times but the Uprising of 1857 was the greatest event that caused agitation extensively across the entire region of the Upper Gangetic Plain.
Uprising of 1857 in EtawahThe Sepoy Mutiny of 1857 was the first rebellion against British dominance in India during which District Etawah and many other towns and cities in the northern part of the country evidenced great disturbance and turmoil. During the Revolt of 1857 the freedom fighters carried out their operations from their seat at Etawah from June 1857 to December 1857. The closing months of 1858 brought British dominance back into the region once more. During the post-independent era under the British rule Etawah underwent various changes related to advancement and urbanization.
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